Second World War(1939- 1945)

World War II was a global conflict that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It was the deadliest conflict in human history, with an estimated 50-85 million fatalities worldwide, including civilians and military personnel. The war was fought between two main alliances: the Axis powers, consisting of Germany, Italy, and Japan; and the Allied powers, consisting of the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union, among others.

The war began on September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland. Britain and France, who had guaranteed Poland's security, declared war on Germany on September 3. The early years of the war were marked by German victories in Europe and the rapid expansion of the Axis powers, including the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.

The tide of the war began to turn in favor of the Allies in 1942, with significant victories in North Africa and the Soviet Union. In 1944, Allied forces landed in Normandy and began the liberation of Western Europe. The war in Europe ended on May 8, 1945, when Germany surrendered.

The war in the Pacific continued until August 15, 1945, when Japan announced its surrender after atomic bombs were dropped on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the United States.

The aftermath of the war led to significant changes in the political and social landscape of the world, including the formation of the United Nations and the beginning of the Cold War between the Western powers and the Soviet Union.

Source - Wikipedia

Causes of World War II:

1. The Treaty of Versailles (1919): The treaty of Versailles had in itself the germs of the Second World War. The Germany was very badly treated. She was forced to sign the treaty at the point of a bayonet, in a spirit of revenge. To tear away the treaty of Versailles, Hitler joined hands with Mussolini of Italy. 2. Nationalist Movements of Germany & Italy: The rise of the national movement in Germany & Italy added fuel to the fire. Although Hitler tried to assure the world that he meant peace, he could not conceal his ambition for long. He embarked on a career of aggression which ultimately lead to war. The same was the case with Mussolini who had established his dictatorship in Italy in 1922. 3. Conflict of Ideology between Dictatorship & Democracy: Countries like Germany, Italy & Japan represented the ideology of dictatorship while Great Britain, France & USA represented the ideology of democracy. Mussolini described the conflict between the two ideology thus: 'The struggle between the two worlds can permit no compromise. Either we or they'

4. Inefficiency of League of Nations: Unfortunately, when hostility was growing between the two camps there was no effective international organization which could bring the leaders of the two camps on a common platform and bring about a reconciliation between them. The League of Nations was practically dead. 5. Colonial & Commercial Rivalry: The colonial and commercial rivalry between England and France on one side, and Germany and Italy on the other brought them in conflict with each other. 6. Aggressiveness of Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis : Hitler had became very aggressive. He annexed the Saar Valley, occupied Rhineland and Austria captured Czechoslovakia etc. Mussolini attacked Abyssinia (Ethiopia) Japan attached China. This aggressive mood of the Fascist Power got its fullest expression when they formed an Axis providing for mutual aid in the international sphere. 7. Immediate Cause: The immediate cause of the war was the refuse of Poland to Surrender. Germany gave an ultimatum to Poland regarding : (i) surrender the port of Dazing, (ii) the right of establishing a rail link between Germany and East Prussia through the Polish corridor. These two demands were rejected by Poland. So Germany invaded Poland on Sept. 1, 1939. Britain and France as they were under treaty obligations to aid Poland, declared war against Germany on Sept. 3, 1393.

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