India is the world's second most populous country, after the Republic of China. India is currently the world's second-most populous country, accounting for 2.4% of the global land area and 17.5% of the global population. This means that one in every six people on Earth is an Indian. According to the United Nations, India's population of 1.3 billion people will surpass China's population of 1.4 billion by 2024, making it the world's most populous country. Population growth is viewed as a threat and a burden on the planet. The rapid increase in the number of people in a given area is referred to as a population explosion. It is a situation in which the country's economy cannot keep up with the country's rapid population growth. Furthermore, it is a situation in which the economy is unable to provide adequate facilities to its citizens. The poorer nations, also known as developing countries, are the largest contributors to the population explosion. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in India, while Lakshadweep is the least populous. As a result, population explosion is inversely related to development in that area. Population growth has become the mother of all evils in our country, trapping people in a web of poverty and illiteracy that exacerbates the problem. In India, there is always a crowd of people at any time of day, whether it is at a metro station, airport, railway platform, road, highway bus stop, shopping mall, market, or even a social or religious gathering. The difference in birth rates is the primary cause of this population explosion. The birth rate is the number of people born in a population over a given period. The human birth rate is the number of babies born each year per 1000 people in the population. For example, if 35 births occur per 1000 people per year, the birth rate is 35). The death rate is the ratio of deaths to individuals in a given population over a given period. Simply put, the incidence of deaths in a given population over a specified period (such as a year) is expressed per 1000 people. Aside from these, some other factors contribute to the population explosion, such as a decrease in infant mortality rate (Mortality rate refers to the number of deaths of infants below the age of 6 months.), Increased life expectancy (An estimate of the average number of additional years that a person of a given age can expect to live). People's life expectancy used to be around 55-60 years. The average person's age has now risen to 70-75 years.) However, thanks to improved medical facilities, we can now extend people's lives. Previously, the birth and death rates were balanced due to limited medical facilities, people dying in wars, and other calamities. Another factor contributing to population growth is illiteracy. Illiterate people become traditional, superstitious, and ignorant. For example, Kerala has a very high literacy rate despite accounting for only 2.76% of India's population, whereas Uttar Pradesh has the highest illiteracy rate and accounts for 16.49% of the population. Well-educated people are well aware of birth control methods. Family planning, welfare programmes, and policies have failed to produce the desired results. The increase in population is putting tremendous strain on India's limited infrastructure and undermining its progress.

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