Indian National Movement


Indian National Movement 

The Indian National Movement was a well-organized mass movement affected by both internal and external influences and concerned with the interests of the Indian people. In 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded as a result of it. The following is detailed.


It has been noted that a number of political, sociocultural, and economic forces combined in India's freedom wars to fuel the emergence of nationalism.


• On 28 December 1885 Indian National Congress (INC) was founded on the premises of Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit School at Bombay. It was presided over by W.C Banerjee and attended by 72 delegates. A.O Hume played an instrumental role in the foundation of INC with an aim to provide Safety Valve to the British Government.


• A.O Hume served as the first General Secretary of INC.


 • The real Aim of Congress is to train the Indian youth in political agitation and to organize or to create public opinion in the country. For this, they use the method of an annual session where they discuss the problem and passed the resolution.


 • Indian nationalism's initial or initial phase is also known as its moderate phase (1885-1905). W.C. Banerjee, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, R.C. Dutt, Ferozeshah Mehta, George Yule, and others were moderate leaders.


• Moderates embraced the PPP path—protest, prayer, and petition—and have complete faith in the British government.


• After 1892, extremism in the congress started to emerge as a result of dissatisfaction with the Moderates' working practices Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Aurobindo Ghosh were the leaders of the extremists. They place a stronger focus on swadeshi, self-reliance, and constructive labor than the PPP method.


• The Swadeshi and Boycott Resolution was enacted in 1905, the same year that Lord Curzon announced the partition of Bengal for administrative purposes.


• The first Independence Day celebration took place on January 26, 1930.


• The Dandi March served as the catalyst for the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhi Ji and his 78 disciples marched from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi from March 12 to April 6, 1930, breaking the salt ban by producing salt on April 6.


• The First Round Table Conference took place on November 12, 1930.


• The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on March 5th, 1931.


• The trial of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and Sukhdev took place on March 23, 1931.


 • The Karachi INC Session, presided over by Vallabh Bhai Patel, took place on March 29, 1931. A resolution on economic policy and fundamental rights was enacted for the first time during this session.


• Gandhi ji represented the Congress at the Second Round Table Conference, which took place on September 7, 1931.


• The Communal or Ramsay Macdonald Award was announced on August 16, 1932.


• The Poona Pact was signed on September 26, 1932.


• The Third Round Table Conference took place in November 1932.


• The Government of India Act, which established the All India Federation, Provincial Autonomy, and Diarchy, was approved in 1935.


Towards Quit India Movement


Important Congress Sessions:


1936 – Lucknow (UP) – Presided by J.L Nehru


1937 – Faizpur (Maharashtra) – Presided by J.L Nehru (First session held in the village)


1938 – Haripura (Gujarat) – Presided by S.C Bose


1939 – Tripuri (M.P) – Presided by S.C Bose


• The Second World War began in September 1939, and without India's agreement, it was proclaimed an ally.


• S.C. Bose created Forward Bloc in 1939. It belonged to the left.


• Viceroy Lord Linlithgow issued the August Offer on August 10, 1940, in an effort to win the support of Indians for the Second World War.


• On March 11, 1942, Prime Minister Winston Churchill announced the dispatch of a team, led by Sir Stafford Cripps, to establish a constitutional solution and address Indian issues.


• Following the collapse of the Cripps Mission, Indian leaders began the Quit India movement in 1942, and Gandhi Ji prepared the resolution. Gandhi ji issued the command "Do or Die."


• Captain Mohan Singh and Niranjan Gill established the Indian National Army in Singapore in 1942. S. C. Bose assumed control of the organization's second headquarters in Singapore and Rangoon.


• S.C. Bose established the Azad Hind Government in Singapore on October 21, 1943. A female regiment by the name of Rani Jhansi existed.


• The Second World War came to an end in 1945.


• Lord Wavell suggested the Shimla Conference or Wavell Plan in 1945 to break the political impasse.


• In 1946, Prime Minister Clement Attlee unveiled the Cabinet Mission Plan.


• J.L. Nehru established an interim government on September 2nd, 1946.


• Lord Mountbatten was deployed to India in March 1947 in an effort to establish a means to transfer authority. sometimes referred to as Balkan Plan


 • The Independence of India Act, 1947, which granted India and Pakistan the status of Dominion States, was passed on June 3.

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