What is Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC)

The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) set minimum energy performance standards for commercial buildings. Under section 14 (p) of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, Central Government has powers to prescribe ECBC for non-residential buildings, having connected load of 100 KW and above or a contract demand of 120 KVA and above or recommended built-up area of 1000 sqm and above. or building complex for efficient use of energy and its conservation. The state governments have the flexibility to modify ECBC to suit local or regional needs. Energy performance standards for the following building systems will be included in the ECBC:

  1. Building Envelope
  2. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning
  3. Lighting
  4. Service Water Heating
  5. Electric Power and Distribution

The salient features of the ECBC for the Composite Climate Zone are as under:

1. Building Envelope:

ECBC compliant design strategy for a building is as under:
Heat/Moisture LossesWallsRoofWindow
Minimize Conduction LossesUse insulation with low U-valueUse insulation with low U-valueUse material with low U-factor
Minimize Convection Losses & Moisture PenetrationReduce air leakage & use vapor barrierReduce air leakage & use vapor BarrierUse prefabricated windows and seal the joints between windows and walls.
Roof Requirement:
Climate ZoneHospitals, Hotels, Call Centres, (24-hours)Other Building types (Daytime)
Maximum U-factor of the overall assembly (W/sq.m-0 C)Minimum R-value of insulation alone (W/sq.m-0 C)Maximum U-factor of the overall assembly (W/sq.m-0 C)Minimum R-value of insulation alone (W/sq.m-0 C)
Wall Requirement:
Climate ZoneHospitals, Hotels, Call Centres, (24-hours)Other Building types (Daytime)
Maximum U-factor of the overall assembly (W/sq.m-0 C)Minimum R-value of insulation alone (W/sq.m-0 C)Maximum U-factor of the overall assembly (W/sq.m-0 C)Minimum R-value of insulation alone (W/sq.m-0 C)
Glazing requirements:
ClimateMaximum U-factorMaximum SHGC WWR < 40%Maximum SHGC 40% < WWR <60%
Minimum Visible Light Transmittance
Window –Wall-RatioMinimum VLT
Defaults for Unrated Vertical Fenestration (Overall Assembly including the Sash and Frame)
Clear GlassTinted Glass
Frame TypeGlazing TypeU- Factor(W/m2-0C)SHGCVLTU-FactorSHGCVLT
All frame typesSingle Glazing7.10.820.767.10.700.58
Wood, vinyl, of fiberglass frameDouble Glazing3.30.590.643.40.420.39
Metel and other frame typeDouble Glazing5.10.680.665.10.500.40
Envelope Performance Factor Coefficients for Composite Climate (under review)
Daytime Occupancy24- Hour Occupancy
U – FactorSHGCU – FactorSHGC
Mass Walls6.0113.85
Curtain Walls, Other15.7220.48
North Windows-1.7540.65-4.5658.15
Non-North Windows-1.2554.510.6886.57
Comfort requirements and Physical manifestations in Buildings of Composite Climate Zone
Thermal RequirementsPhysical Manifestation
Reduce Heat Gain in Summer and Reduce Heat Loss in Winter
Decrease exposed surface areaOrientation and shape of building. Use of trees as wind barriers
Increase thermal resistanceRoof insulation and wall insulation
Increase thermal capacity (Time lag)Thicker walls
Increase buffer spacesAir locks/Balconies
Decrease air exchange rateWeather stripping
Increase shadingWalls, glass surfaces protected by overhangs, fins and trees
Increase surface reflectivityPale color, glazed china mosaic tiles, etc.
Reduce solar heat gainUse glazing with lower SHGC and provide shading for windows. Minimize glazing in East and West
Promote Heat Loss in Summer/Monsoon
Increase air exchange rate ( Ventilation)Courtyards/wind towers/ arrangement of openings
Increase humidity levels in dry summerTrees and water ponds for evaporative cooling
Decrease humidity in monsoonDehumidifiers/ desiccant cooling

Source:- Nayak and Prajapati (2206), Handbook on Energy Conscious Buildings.

2. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC):

i) Minimum Efficiency for Chillers:
Equipment ClassMinimum COPMinimum IPLVTest Standard
Air Cooled Chiller <530KW (<150 tons)2.903.16ARI 550/590-1998
Air Cooled Chiller>=530KW(>=150 tons)3.053.32ARI 550/590-1998
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller <530KW(<150 tons)5.806.09ARI 550/590-1998
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller >=530KW and =150 tons and <300 tons)5.806.17
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller >=1050KW(>=300 tons)6.306.61ARI 550/590-1998
Reciprocating Compressor, Water Cooled Chiller all sizes4.205.05
Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor, Water Cooled Chiller <530KW(<150 tons)4.705.49ARI550/590-1998
Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor, Water Cooled Chiller>=530 and =150 and <300 tons)5.406.17
R Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor, Water Cooled Chiller>=1050KW(>=300 tons)5.756.43ARI 550/590-1998

ii) Unitary Air

Conditioning Equipment:
Equipment ClassMinimum COPMinimum IPLVTest Standard
Unitary Air Cooled Air Conditioner >=19 and =5.4 and <11 tons)3.08ARI 210/240
Unitary Air Cooled Air Conditioner >=40 to =11 to <20 tons)3.08ARI 340/360
Unitary Air Cooled Air Conditioner >=70KW(>=20 tons)2.932.99ARI 340/360
Unitary Water Cooled Air Conditioner<19KW(<5.4 tons)4.10ARI 210/240
Unitary Water Cooled Air Conditioner>=19 and =5.4 and <11 tons)4.10+++ARI 210/240
Unitary Water Cooled Air Conditioner>==11 tons)3.223.02ARI 210/240

3. Lighting:

i) Lighting Power Requirement: Table 7.3.1 Interior Lighting Power-Building Area Method
Building Area TypeLPD (W/sq.m)Building Area TypeLPD (W/sq.m)
Automotive facility9.7Multifamily7.5
Convention Center12.9Museum11.8
Court House12.9Office10.8
Dining: Bar Lounge/Leisure14.0Parking Garage3.2
Dinging: Cafeteria/Fast Food15.1Performing Arts Theater17.2
Table 7.3.2 Interior Lighting Power –Space Function Method
Space FunctionLPD (W/sq.m)Space FunctionLPD (W/sq.m)
For Hotel11.8Emergency29.1
For Performing Arts Theater35.5Recovery8.6
For Motion Picture Theater11.8Nurse Station10.8
ii) Exterior Building Lighting Power:
Exterior Lighting ApplicationsPower Limits
Building entrance (with canopy)13 W/m2 (1.3 W / ft2) of canopied are
Building entrance (without canopy)90 W/lin m (30 W/lin f) of door width
Building exit60 W/lin m (20 W/lin f) of door width
Building facades2 W/m2 (0.2 W/ ft2) of vertical facade area
iii) Interior Lighting Power – Space Function Method:
Space Function LPD (W/m2)Space Function LPD (W/m2)
Office-enclosed11.8For Reading Area12.9
Office- open plan11.8Hospital
Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose14.0For Emergency29.1
Classroom/Lecture Training15.1For Recovery8.6
Lobby14.0For Nurse Station10.8
For Hotel11.8For Exam Treatment16.1
For Performing Arts Theater35.5For Pharmacy12.9
For Motion Picture Theater11.8For patient Room7.5
Audience/Seating Area*9.7For Operating Room23.7
For Gymnasium4.3For Nursery6.5
For Convention Center7.5For Medical23.7
Audience/Seating Area*9.7For Operating Room15.1
Atrium –first three floors6.5For Low Bay (<8m celling)12.9
Atrium-each additional floor2.2For High Bay (>8m ceiling)18.3
Lounge/Recreation*12.9For Detailed Manufacturing22.6
For Hospital8.6For Equipment Room12.9
Dining Area*9.7For Control Room5.4
For Hotel14.0Hotel/Motel Guest Rooms11.8
For Motel12.9Dormitory- Living Quarters11.8
For Bar Lounge/Leisure Dining15.1Museum
For Family Dining22.6For General Exhibition10.8
Food Preparation12.9For Restoration18.3
Laboratory15.1Bank office- Banking Activity Area16.1
Dressing/Locker/Fitting Room6.5For Sales Area18.3
Corridor/Transition*5.4For Mall Concourse18.3
For Hospital10.8Sports Arena
For Manufacturing Facility5.4For Ring Sports Area29.1
Stairs-active6.5For Court Sports Area24.8
Active Storage*8.6For Indoor Field Area15.1
For Hospital9.7Warehouse
Inactive Storage*3.2For Fine Material Storage15.1
For Museum8.6For Medium /Bulky Material Storage9.7
Electrical /Mechanical Facility16.1Parking Garage- Garage Area2.2
Convention Center- Exhibit Space14.0For Airport- Concourse6.5
LibraryFor Air/Train/Bus- Baggage Area10.8
For Card File & Cataloging11.8For Ticket Counter Terminal16.1
For Stacks18.3

4. Service Water Heating:

Mandatory Requirements

a) Solar water heater or heat recovery for at least 20% of the design capacity

Minimum efficiency for service water heating equipment

Piping insulation

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