Environmental Factors Affecting Urban Planning

Environmental factors, in varying degrees, always have a direct influence on the urban environment formation and the provision of favorable and safe conditions for the life of the population. Their role in the planning and development of urban areas remains an integral part of the management of such areas. Management should be aimed at improving the efficiency of use of the territories and ecological environment improvement. Planning must be done with the consideration of identified ecological processes in cities on the basis of the information about their occurrence in the past and present. Currently, cities face a multitude of problems that require urgent and immediate solutions. One of the most important issues is the poor state of the urban environment, so the environmental factors remain one of the most critical problems that should be considered by the authorities while implementing the urban areas’ development plans. 

It should be noted that urban development depends very much on investment policies, where the state, local governments are trying to develop a mechanism for development . 

The main sources of pollution of surface waters are insufficiently treated and untreated wastewater of industrial and utility companies, untreated sewage urban stormwater, runoff agricultural enterprises. As before, almost everywhere water bodies contaminated stubborn organic substances, compounds of iron, copper, zinc, manganese, oil products. The high content of these substances, with the exception of petroleum products, caused by natural factors.

Intense sources of pollution are urban stormwater, landfills for industrial and household waste from the territory of which there is erosion and filtering pollutants .

The impact of individual industries on the environment of the city

Industrial influence

The problem of all the industrial enterprises, the formation of large quantities of waste, air emissions, wastewater and solid waste production. The reduction of areas of forests, savannas, steppes in connection with the rapid construction of cities, industrial enterprises and highways leads to the reduction of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Therefore, the subjects of such enterprises should seek to take into account and improve the greening of production in the process of financial and economic activities.

Mining and processing enterprises for industrial purposes use large quantities of water. This entails the formation of wastewater contaminated with various substances, which in contact with water bodies is detrimental to their inhabitants. In the surface water is discharged petroleum products, copper compounds, iron, zinc, phosphorus, phenol, ammonia and nitrite nitrogen. Very often these and other harmful substances are in the groundwater, where they seep from landfills production and agriculture.

Transport influence

Transport is one of the most important elements of the material-technical base of social production and a necessary condition for the functioning of modern industrial society, as it is used for the movement of goods and passengers.

Transport is a major source of acoustic pollution of the environment. In large cities, the noise level of 70-75 acoustic decibels, which is several times exceeds admissible norms.

The combustion of fuel in engine cylinders are formed non-toxic (water vapor, carbon dioxide) and toxic substances. The latter are the products of combustion or side-reactions occurring at high temperatures. The main toxic component of exhaust gases released during the operation of gasoline engines is carbon monoxide. It is formed by incomplete oxidation of carbon fuels due to lack of oxygen in the whole volume of the engine cylinder or in its separate parts.

The priority areas of reduction of environmental pollution by motor transport are the use of new types of vehicles, minimally polluting (e.g., electric vehicle), rational organization and management of traffic flows and the use of better and more environmentally friendly fuels (e.g. gas).


Sewage and waste water

At present, domestic sewage is a huge problem both from the point of view of ecology and the environment, and economic side. Of the household domestic waste water to the hydrosphere do organic substances which are decomposed by oxygen-consuming colonies of bacteria. With the necessary access of air to the aerobic bacteria convert the wastewater into environmentally harmless substances. Given the restricted access of oxygen to the sewage decreases the activity of aerobic bacteria, thereby developing the anaerobic bacteria, implying the process of decay.

With sewage from domestic wastewaters into the water includes pesticides, phenols, surfactants (e.g., detergents). Their decomposition process is slow, some substances do not decompose at all. Via food chains from the organisms of aquatic animals and fish, these substances enter the human organism, negatively affect human health, which can further lead to various acute and chronic infectious diseases.

Municipal solid waste

Environmental pollution household waste affects the person through air, water, foods of plant origin grown on the poisoned soil debris.

Entering the soil chemical compounds accumulate and lead to a gradual change of chemical and physical properties, reduce the number of living organisms, impair fertility. Along with pollutants, often in soil bacteria, helminth eggs and other harmful organisms. Currently the recycling of trash is becoming the phenomenon only in a few countries, but there is an important need for more active use. Such methods of disposal of waste placement on landfills and incineration is not innocuous. Landfills emit methane gas, which creates a menacing our planet, the greenhouse effect, trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere.

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