Consideration of Environmental Factors in Planning and Development of Urban Areas

 In order to ensure safety and adequate conditions of life of the population, to limit the negative impact of economic and other activities on the environment and to ensure the protection and rational use of natural resources for the benefit of present and future generations, local governments in the implementation of spatial planning should take environmental factors into account. Therefore, speaking about environmental factors, we should pay attention to those functional areas that are most dependent planning in relation to environmental factors or themselves have an impact on the environment.

These are production zones, zones of engineering and transport infrastructures, residential and recreational areas. Production zone designed to accommodate industrial, municipal and warehouse facilities. The production area recommended to be placed on territories with a calm relief, providing convenient transport links to places of settlement employed in the enterprise workers and external facilities and urban transport. Planning should take into account the fact that in the production area included the territory of sanitary protection zones of the objects themselves and in these sanitary protection zones are not allowed in residential houses, preschool and educational institutions, and healthcare institutions, leisure, recreational and sports facilities, horticultural, suburban and gardening cooperatives and agricultural production.

In addition to production areas should pay attention to the zones of engineering and transport infrastructure, which is designed to accommodate activities and facilities and communications of railway, road, river, Maritime, air and pipeline transport, communications and engineering equipment, and also have in one way or another impact on the environment. When planning must take into account compliance with the required distances from such facilities to areas of residential, social, business and recreational areas and other requirements to prevent harmful effects on the environment. It should be understood that the objects of engineering and transport infrastructure, possessing the feature of a direct harmful impact on the security of the population, must be located outside urban and rural settlements.

Also in planning land use should pay attention to the location of the city's recreational areas. As these areas are intended for the organization of places of rest of the population you need to consider that their territories are not permitted the construction and expansion of existing industrial, communal and storage objects, which can have a negative impact on human health and the environment. The exception may be only industrial, municipal and warehouse facilities, which is directly related to the operation of facilities health and recreational purposes.

Territorial planning of the municipal district is accompanied by the preparation of necessary documentation for territorial planning.

documents of territorial planning;

documents zoning;

documentation on planning the territory.

In accordance with article 18 of the town planning Code of the Russian Federation territorial planning documents of municipalities are:

territorial planning schemes of municipal districts;

master plans of settlements;

master plans of urban districts

The General plan of the municipal formation is main planning document that determines the prospects of development of the city for a long time. It must be presented not only transport, architectural planning, engineering, social and industrial aspects of city development and the ecological living conditions of the population and prospects of preservation of the environment. With the development of project planning documentation should consider the regulations and restrictions on natural resources, the sanitary-hygienic norms and rules, and other regulations governing environmental safety of living of population, natural features areas, the demographic features of the territory, its historical and cultural value and other environmental factors, or otherwise influencing the adoption of planning decisions.

Such a collection of information about the area required for the implementation of investment projects for the integrated development of the city. Detailed preliminary analysis of the relevant documents allows to predict the possible risks at the initial stage of implementation of the investment. These documents are very important for the investor because on the basis of the relevant documents, management decisions that may affect the interests of holders of land plots and capital construction objects (for example, decisions on seizure of land plots).

Environmental factors

Ecological factors are processes or individual elements of the environment, natural or anthropogenic, are considered when planning land use in order to ensure favorable living conditions of the population and protection of sustainable functioning of natural ecological systems from pollution and other negative impacts of economic and other activities.

For effective management of urban areas and improve the planning should include the parameters of the natural environment as good or bad as air, drinking water quality, the presence or absence of green areas, noise, the presence or absence of unattractive objects. Very often three of the above factors — air quality, the presence of landscaping and the absence of industrial facilities that form people's opinions about the good or bad quality of the environment and create preconditions for increase of prestige of urban areas and, consequently, increase in property prices of the cities.

Thus, in the urban planning law defines the concept of sustainable development of territories. In accordance with paragraph 3 of article 1 of GRK of the Russian Federation sustainable development of territories is a provision in the implementation of urban development of safe and favorable conditions of human life, the limitation of negative impact of economic and other activities on the environment and the protection and rational use of natural resources for the benefit of present and future generations.

The concept of sustainable development has a similar wording in the international law document - the Rio Declaration on the environment. On the basis of recommendations and principles published documents in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 at the UN Conference on environment and development.

The analysis of the documentation on territorial planning and materials for the assessment of the ecological status of the city, helped to identify the main problem areas of the municipality. Such today are:

environmental pollution by industrial enterprises and motor transport;

the poor state of hydrographic system of the Piedmont historical part of the city;

flooding and flooding of territories;

pollution of surface waters;

solid waste management.

In the framework of the environmental project acquired a mobile laboratory, which today can produce a sample of atmospheric air in any part of the city and the industrial site. 

It should be noted that industrial activities has a negative impact not only on air quality but also on water sources, therefore, for the protection of water environment and prevention of negative impact of industrial enterprises on its facilities in the city master plan is provided to develop projects for the organization water protection zones and coastal shelterbelts on water bodies. To clean the territories of water protection zones from industrial waste, to identify businesses that unauthorized use of water objects and to apply penalties, in accordance with environmental legislation.

It should be noted that industrial enterprises have a negative impact not only on atmospheric air and water objects, but also on the soil condition of the city district. To recover and also to prevent contamination and destruction of the soil cover of the city, the master plan proposes to develop a series of measures on protection of water objects, pesticides, industrial and other technological waste. For this reason provided for activities such as reclamation and rehabilitation of the territories of the liquidated farms, agricultural enterprises and other polluting objects. You should also organize agrotechnical service for continuous monitoring for quality changes of soil and taking appropriate measures for its protection, ensuring quality control and timeliness of performance of works on recultivation of disturbed lands.

In connection with these factors to improve the environmental situation in the city, to avoid the periodic flooding of urban areas and partial waterlogging, increasing the service life of pavement, as well as to reduce pollution of surface water the master plan provides for the comprehensive development of the Sewerage system of storm (rain) wastewater and protection from flooding of the city, as well as works on Bank protection of the river in the area of the cemetery and the construction of the dam embankment. 

On the territory of the municipality of solid waste represents a source of environmental pollution, contributing to the spread of hazardous substances. However, they contain in their composition components (ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics), which can be used as secondary resources. Production debris, similar in composition to MSW could be used as valuable secondary raw material after special processing. Food waste (catering, vegetable bases, etc.), if they do not require sorting, are also of great value. In any case, the separation of food and non-food solid waste allows us to offer an adequate technology of their processing.

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